Your information to biking on the 2021 Paralympic Video games in Tokyo

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Word: This story first appeared on our sister web site, You’ll be able to learn CyclingTips’ full protection of the Paralympics Video games here

With the Tokyo Olympics now full, it’s time for the world’s greatest para athletes to take middle stage. The Tokyo Paralympics started on Tuesday, August 24, and runs via Sunday, September 5.

Right here’s a information to understanding the foundations, classes, and classifications for the para biking occasions.

The classifications

To grasp the dizzying array of medal occasions on the Paralympics, you first want to know paracycling classifications.

In paracycling, athletes are divided into ‘sport courses’ in response to the kind and severity of their impairment(s). You’ll be able to see an in depth breakdown of relevant impairments on page 33 of this UCI document, however in essence, there are eight impairments that make an athlete eligible for paracycling:

  • Impaired muscle energy (e.g. resulting from a spinal twine damage)
  • Impaired passive vary of motion
  • Limb deficiency (e.g. a number of amputations)
  • Leg size distinction
  • Hypertonia: a rise in muscle pressure and the diminished capacity of a muscle to stretch, attributable to harm to the central nervous system (e.g. through cerebral palsy, traumatic mind damage, or a stroke)
  • Ataxia: uncoordinated actions attributable to harm to the central nervous system (e.g. through cerebral palsy, traumatic mind damage, or a stroke)
  • Athetosis: continuous gradual involuntary actions (e.g. through cerebral palsy, traumatic mind damage, or a stroke)
  • Imaginative and prescient impairment (diminished or no imaginative and prescient)

There are minimal impairment standards that an athlete should attain as a way to be eligible for paracycling classification, and standardized exams that officers use when classifying riders (see page 34 o the UCI guidelines for more information). Totally different ranges of impairment correspond with totally different courses, with decrease numbers indicating a better stage of impairment.

As you’ll see under, some courses race collectively whereas others have their very own medal occasion.

Listed here are the biking courses you’ll see in motion in Tokyo.

H 1-5

Division H occasions are contested by handcyclists. Picture: Mauro Ujetto/NurPhoto through Getty Photographs

Division H occasions are contested by handcyclists. Decrease numbers (e.g. H1 and H2) point out athletes with restrictions to each higher and decrease limbs, whereas increased numbers (e.g. H4 and H5) point out restrictions to their higher limbs solely.

Athletes in courses H1-4 race on recumbent (i.e. reclined) bikes whereas H5 athletes use bikes that facilitate a kneeling or sitting place.

T 1-2

T-1 and T-2 occasions see paracyclists experience on tricycles. Picture: Brett Keating/Velocity Media/Icon Sportswire through Getty Photographs

Division T races are contested by athletes who experience tricycles, resulting from diminished steadiness and/or a extreme restriction that forestalls them from driving a bicycle.

The T1 class is for athletes with extra vital coordination impairments, whereas T2 athletes have much less vital impairments.

C 1-5

Division C athletes experience modified customary bicycles that accommodate their our bodies. Picture: David Fitzgerald/Sportsfile through Getty Photographs

Division C athletes experience an ordinary bicycle, usually modified to accommodate their impairment(s). As an example, an athlete with an arm impairment would possibly use in another way formed handlebars.

Decrease-numbered courses (e.g. C1-2) point out a extra extreme limitation in decrease and/or higher limbs.


Division B riders compete on tandem bicycles piloted by a sighted athlete. Picture: Kiyoshi Ota/Getty Photographs

Division B is for vision-impaired athletes who experience a tandem bike piloted by a sighted athlete. Tandem pilots should not be a part of a UCI-registered group, and should not have been a part of a WorldTeam or ProTeam for the earlier 12 months.

Factored occasions

Factored occasions are those who embody athletes from totally different courses and the place riders’s occasions are scaled as a way to take into consideration the severity of every competitor’s impairment(s). The objective is to make sure fairness between courses.

Some athletes can have their outcomes ‘factored’, whereas others won’t. The gold medal in such occasions is handed to the rider with the quickest time in any case occasions have been factored.

For example, listed here are the components that apply to Division C highway biking occasions (you’ll find tables for different divisions in part 16.1.005 of the UCI’s Paracycling rules).

Within the ladies’s C 1-2-3 time trial in Tokyo, for instance, C3 ladies will get no matter time they experience in opposition to the clock. C2 ladies can be given a time that’s 96.15 p.c of their ending time, and for C1 ladies that proportion is 92.45 p.c. The rider with the bottom time in any case these calculations will win gold.

One quirk of this method is {that a} rider can break a world file for his or her particular class, however not win the occasion. Word that whereas a while trials are factored occasions, the equal highway races usually are not.

A desk exhibiting the UCI’s desk for factoring occasions.

Highway races and time trials

Andrea Eskau of Germany competes within the Ladies’s Time Trial H4-5 in the course of the Rio 2016 Paralympic Video games, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 14 September 2016. Picture: Jens Buettner/dpa | utilization worldwide (Picture by Jens Büttner/image alliance through Getty Photographs)

Right here’s the complete schedule of road cycling medal events at the Tokyo Paralympics.

Highway races: 

And under is a breakdown of all of the highway races by class.

Males Ladies Combined
H 1-2 highway race

H 3 highway race

H4 highway race

C 1-2-3 highway race

C 4-5 highway race

B highway race

T 1-2 highway race

H 1-2-3-4 highway race

H5 highway race

C 1-2-3- highway race

C 4-5 highway race

B highway race

T 1-2 highway race

H 1-5 group relay


All highway races (besides the combined group relay) will happen on the identical 13.2km circuit that begins and finishes on the Fuji Worldwide Speedway. It’s a lumpy circuit, outlined by a 3.5km climb to the end line.

The variety of laps will fluctuate between courses. All highway races can be held between Wednesday, September 1 and Friday, September 3.

Time trials

Rio , Brazil – 14 September 2016; Colin Lynch of Eire in motion in the course of the Males’s Time Trial C2 on the Pontal Biking Highway in the course of the Rio 2016 Paralympic Video games in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. (Picture By Diarmuid Greene/Sportsfile through Getty Photographs)

All courses will race on an undulating 8km time trial course throughout the Fuji Worldwide Speedway complicated. As with the highway races, the variety of laps will depend upon the category. All time trials can be held on Tuesday, August 31.

Males Ladies










T 1-2 ITT (Factored)

H 1-2-3 ITT (Factored)

H 4-5 ITT (Factored)

C 1-2-3 ITT (Factored)




T 1-2 ITT (Factored)


Crew relay

Italy gained the lads’s Crew Relay in 2016. Picture: Mauro Ujetto/NurPhoto through Getty Photographs

The combined group relay can be contested by groups of three handcyclists. Every rider will full three laps of a flattish 2.8 km Fuji Speedway course, for a complete of 9 laps per group. Riders two and three could begin their laps when the earlier rider crosses the end line.

Crew composition is ruled by a factors system, with athletes allotted factors primarily based on their gender and impairment(s). Every group of three should solely have a most of 9 factors, and should embody an athlete with a most rating of two factors. Right here’s the course and profile for the combined relay. The combined group relay can be held on Thursday, September 2.

This desk reveals the factors system for the group relay.

Monitor biking

Bike owner Erich Winkler of Germany competes within the Biking Monitor – Males’s C1 3000M Particular person Pursuit Qualification of the Rio 2016 Paralympic Video games, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 09 September 2016. Winkler’s prothesis departed from the pedal. He was allowed by the jury to repeat his warmth and certified for the bronze medal race. Picture: Kay Nietfeld/dpa | utilization worldwide (Picture by Kay Nietfeld/image alliance through Getty Photographs)

Listed here are all the monitor biking medal occasions that’ll be taking place on the 250-meter Izu Velodrome.

Males Ladies Combined
C 1-2-3 Kilo (Factored)

C 4-5 Kilo (Factored)

C 1 Pursuit

C 2 Pursuit

C 3 Pursuit

C 4 Pursuit

C 5 Pursuit

B Kilo

B Pursuit


C 1-2-3 500m (Factored)

C 4-5 500m (Factored)

C 1-2-3 Pursuit

C 4 Pursuit

C 5 Pursuit

B Kilo

B Pursuit

C 1-5 Crew Dash

Right here’s a breakdown of the varied disciplines and what they entail:

The ‘Kilo’

A 1km (four-lap) time trial contested by Division B (vision-impaired) women and men, and Division C (customary bicycle) males. Division C ladies contest this self-discipline over 500 meters (two laps).


A person pursuit, with two riders beginning on opposites sides of the monitor. First throughout the end line wins. Division B males and C4-5 women and men race over 4,000 meters. C1-3 women and men, plus Division B ladies all race over 3,000m.

Crew dash

Raced by mixed-gender groups of three Division C riders over three laps. After every lap, the lead rider peels off, permitting the remaining rider(s) to proceed on to the road.

A group is allowed a most of 10 factors when deciding on its line-up, with riders allotted factors in response to their gender and impairment(s).

All monitor biking occasions can be held from Wednesday, August 25 to Saturday, August 28. Observe the hyperlink for a full schedule of track cycling events at the Tokyo Paralympics for extra data.